Part 4 - Questions 31 - 40

Complete the notes below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer

Bird Migration Theory

Most birds are believed to migrate seasonally.

Hibernation theory

• It was believed that birds hibernated underwater or buried themselves in 31
• This theory was later disproved by experiments on caged birds.

Transmutation theory

• Aristotle believed birds changed from one species into another in summer and winter.
– In autumn he observed that redstarts experience the loss of 32 and thought they then turned into robins.
– Aristotle’s assumptions were logical because the two species of birds had a similar 33

17th century

• Charles Morton popularised the idea that birds fly to the 34 in winter.

Scientific developments

• In 1822, a stork was killed in Germany which had an African spear in its 35
– previously there had been no 36 that storks migrate to Africa
• Little was known about the 37 and journeys of migrating birds until the practice of ringing was established.
– It was thought large birds carried small birds on some journeys because they were considered incapable of travelling across huge 38
– Ringing depended on what is called the 39’ of dead birds.
• In 1931, the first 40 to show the migration of European birds was printed.